For this week’s forum we are to describe how the operational relationship betwee

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For this week’s forum we are to describe how the operational relationship between the U.S. intelligence community and the homeland security enterprise evolved in the past ten years, identify are the biggest gaps in developing seamless interoperability, why these gaps exist, and describe at least two major intelligence reforms in the past ten years.
Part I: How has the operational relationship between the U.S. intelligence community and the homeland security enterprise evolved in the past ten years?
Due to rapidly evolving threats facing the homeland, it is vital to share information. Risk based models of security that are intelligence driven, the need for timely intelligence grows. The Homeland Security Enterprise have made great strides to ensure that intelligence is shared in a timely manner. New systems and organizations were created and existing organizations had been reworked to reduce boundaries and walls that existed prior to 9/11. DHS continues to be an advocate for the expanded sharing of intelligence and information. Fusion centers established after 9/11 are valuable in bringing Federal counterterrorism agencies to the same table with state and local law enforcement agencies that are more likely to observe and respond to terrorist activity (Nelson, 2013).
Part II: What do you believe are the biggest gaps in developing seamless interoperability and why do these gaps exist?
The terrorists disregards for borders and its associated with transnational crime has shed the light on the need for a domestic intelligence in the United States through legislation and initiatives. The issue for domestic intelligence agencies is that they have to work within a larger framework, so information sharing and oversight mechanisms to protect civil liberties are in place. Despite having intelligence organizations and assessment protocols, the lack of direction at executive and legislative branches have resulted in a intelligence apparatus and national security community in need of direction (Burch, 2007).
Part III: Describe at least two major intelligence reforms in the past ten years.
One of the most important reforms is the broader use of FISA warrants for terror investigations. FISA dictates how intelligence collection on foreign countries and agents of those countries those are present in the United States that is engaged in terrorist activities. A FISA warrant required a purpose for surveillance was to gather foreign intelligence. Prior to the US PATRIOT Act, the Department of Justice put this to policy and it restricted the coordination between intelligence agencies and law enforcement. This was known as the wall between law enforcement and intelligence and was noted as one of the factors in the 9/11 attacks. Section 218 of the US PATRIOT Act changed the phrasing of purpose to significant purpose. This verbiage change made it easier to collect intelligence and in effect, tore down the wall (Bjelopera, 2013).
In 2015 the US Senate passed a bill to stop the collection of American’s phone records, creating the largest reform since 1978, two years after NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden provided those documents to the media. The Senate passed the Freedom Act, which then passed in the House. The Act allowed for telecom companies to control the records collection program, ending the ability for the NSA and FBI to use those records (Siddiqui, 2015).
Justin

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