Answer ONLY EIGHT of the following questions, in short (roughly one paragraph) a

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Answer ONLY EIGHT of the following questions, in short (roughly one paragraph) answers. You will not need to use full sentences, but provide enough information so that I can tell what you are talking about. Specific answers with specific examples will be particularly rewarded.
1) What were some of the major, long-term consequences of the Neolithic Revolution (NOT JUST FARMING AND SETTLING IN ONE PLACE)?
2) What was the importance of the development of iron working in the history of Eurasian civilizations?
3) How did their worship of one God make the religion of the Israelites/Jews differ from other ancient religions?
4) What were the long- term effects of the conquests of Alexander the Great? 5) What was the historical significance of Mahayana Buddhism?
6) What were the major technological, social, and political innovations of the Chinese “Warring States Period”?
7) What were the basic principles behind the development of the Roman Republic? 8) Why did the Roman Republic collapse in the first century BCE?
9) Identify the author and discuss the significance of the following quote:
“Robbers of the world, having by their universal plunder exhausted the land, they rifle the deep. If the enemy be rich, they are rapacious; if he be poor, they lust for dominion; neither the east nor the west has been able to satisfy them. Alone among men they covet with equal eagerness poverty and riches. To robbery, slaughter, plunder, they give the lying name of empire; they make a solitude and call it peace”
10) Why did the Roman government persecute Christians? When the Roman persecution of Christians end?
11) What was Byzantium? What were its characteristic features?
12) How was Islam related to Christianity and Judaism?
PART TWO: TOPICAL ESSAY (40%)
Choose ONE topic and discuss in a short essay, using specific examples from the civilizations we have encountered in this class:
1) Most religious movements in history have had to address the so-called “Problem of Evil” (i.e. why do bad things happen to good people?). Describe and compare how at least three different religious movements discussed in the course and readings have understood the nature of “evil.”
2) What is a “Universal Religion”? How were universal religions different from most ancient religions? How did universal faiths like Christianity, Islam and Mahayana Buddhism reshape the politics and societies of Afro-Eurasia at the end of the ancient world?
3) How did the status of women vary in ancient societies? What were the most important factors that determined the status, freedoms and power of women in ancient societies, and why? Give examples.
4) Imagine you are a person living in one of the ancient societies we have looked at in class. Write a critique of modern American society from that ancient person’s perspective.
5) “Art is one of our best sources for understanding ancient societies.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Support your answer with examples taken from the societies we have studied this semester.l

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