A future scenario: It is January 2023. President Joe Biden, a Democrat, is enter

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A future scenario:
It is January 2023. President Joe Biden, a Democrat, is entering the second half of his first term of office. It is the first month of the 118th Congress. The mid-term elections in November 2022 reduced the Democrats’ majority in the House of Representatives–there are 219 Democrats and 216 Republicans. The number of Democratic senators actually increased by one, so that the Democrats have a 51-49 majority.
In November 2021, Congress passed and President Biden signed the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. The House also passed an amended version of Biden’s proposed Build Back Better Act later that month, but it never came to a vote in the Senate. Then, through the months of 2022 right up until October, Democrats in the House passed parts of the Build Back Better proposals as separate bills, but none of these bills were voted on in the Senate. It is a new Congress now. Any bills that have not already become law must be introduced anew. Some members of Congress are ready to do more on a range of issues like health care and education.
Choose one of the policy proposals (A or B), and answer the four questions below.
Choose a policy proposal:
Note: The links lead to more details of each proposal. These links are not meant to trip you up. They are just to give some realism to answering the questions.
Proposal A: Health Care
A representative has introduced a bill to expand the Medicare program by making it an option for people who do not have health insurance and assisting them with the premiums. The bill would pay for it by increasing the income tax on capital gains (profit from reselling stocks or other assets).
Proposal B: Higher Education
A representative has introduced a bill providing tuition-free community college for everyone and four years of tuition at public colleges for students from families with less than $125,000 annual income while capping student loan repayments for college graduates. The bill would pay for it by increasing the income tax on capital gains (profit from reselling stocks or other assets).
Regarding either of the above proposals (A or B), write a response to the following items:
1. Getting the bill passed in the House
What are the steps that must occur for the bill to pass the House of Representatives? Include both the committee stage and getting the bill to the floor. Does it make a difference that the Democrats are the majority instead of the Republicans?
2. Getting the bill passed in the Senate and enacted into law
If the bill passes the House, what might happen in the Senate? Compare and contrast Senate and House procedures. Does it matter which party is in the majority? If the bill passes the Senate, what are the remaining steps for it to become law?
3. The role of the president
Do you think President Biden will support the bill? What can he do to influence whether Congress passes the bill and what the bill includes?
4. The role of the bureaucracy
If the bill becomes law, which department(s) of the federal executive branch would you expect to be responsible for carrying it out? In what way will state governments also be involved?

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